Type 1 Diabetes

“This type of Diabetes is caused as result of the destruction of β-cells due to aggressive nature of cells present in the body. Hence β-cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed causing severe lack of insulin. This results in the body attacking and destroying its own cells in the pancreas-known as an auto immune reaction. It’s not clear why this happens, but a number of explanations and possible triggers of this reaction have been proposed.

“These includeInfection with a specific virus or bacteria,Exposure to food-borne chemical toxins, and It may also be genetic, Mal-nutrients and environment (virus affecting Pancreas). Secondly, in most of the cases, diabetes occurs because there is abnormal secretion of some hormones in blood which act as antagonists to insulin. Example- Adrenocortical hormone, Adrenaline hormone and Thyroid hormone.However, these are only hypotheses and are by no means proven causes.

Type 2 Diabetes

“There is simply insufficient insulin available(Insulinogenic); andThe insulin that is available may be abnormal and therefore doesn’t work properly. The receptors on cells in the body that normally respond to the action of insulin fail to be stimulated by it – this is known as insulin resistance ( Insulinotropic). In response to this more insulin may be produced, and this over-production exhausts the insulin-manufacturing cells in the pancreas;
The following risk factors also increase the chances of someone developing Type 2 diabetes:

Hereditary or Inherited Traits: It is strongly believed that due to some genes which passes from one generation to another, a person can inherit diabetes. It depends upon closeness of blood relationship as mother is diabetic, the risk is 2 to 3%, father is diabetic, the risk is more than the previous case and if both the parents are diabetic, the child has much greater risk for diabetes.
Age: Increased age is a factor which gives more possibility than in younger age. This disease may occur at any age, but 80% of cases occur after 50 year, incidences increase with the age factor.
Poor Diet: Improper nutrition, low protein and fiber intake, high intake of refined products are the expected reasons for developing diabetes.
Obesity and Fat Distribution:Being overweight means increased insulin resistance that is if body fat is more than 30%, BMI 25+, waist girth 35 inches in women or 40 inches in males.
Sedentary Lifestyle: People with sedentary lifestyle are more prone to diabetes, when compared to those who exercise thrice a week, are at low risk of falling prey to diabetes.
Stress: Either physical injury or emotional disturbance is frequently blamed as the initial cause of the disease. Any disturbance in Corticosteroid or ACTH therapy may lead to clinical signs of the disease.
Drug Induced: Clozapine (Clozaril), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel) and ziprasidone (Geodon) are known to induce this lethal disease.
Infection: Some of the strephylococci is supposed to be responsible factor for infection in pancreas.
Sex: Diabetes is commonly seen in elderly especially males but, strongly in women and those females with multiple pregnancy or suffering from (PCOS) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
Hypertension: It had been reported in many studies that there is direct relation between high systolic pressure and diabetes.
Serum lipids and lipoproteins: High triglyceride and cholesterol level in the blood is related to high blood sugars, in some cases it has been studied that risk is involved even with low HDL levels in circulating blood.
Pollution: Air pollution or soil pollution is also causing Insulinogenic and Insulinotropic.”